The History of Leisure and Recreation

When you stop to think about it, humankind has always enjoyed some type of leisure and recreation, so the history of leisure and recreation goes back a very long way. The Romans had the Coliseum, where they watched chariot races and other entertainment. The Greeks had amphitheaters where they viewed drama and comedy, and of course they invented the Olympics, one of the greatest entertainment sport spectacles on earth. The list goes on. Even the Bible discusses singing, dancing, music, and other forms of acceptable recreation, so even the most ancient civilizations enjoyed entertainment and recreation of some sort.

The Middle Ages

Life for most people in the Middle Ages was dark and difficult. More emphasis was put on work, and there was little time for leisure. However, jousting tournaments, hunting tournaments, and the earliest forms of chess, checkers, and other games developed during this time. The people worked hard, the Church forbade many forms of entertainment, but there were still leisure pastimes to help develop the growing history of leisure and recreation.

The Industrial Revolution

This history of leisure and recreation goes far back in time, but leisure and recreation really took off when the Industrial Revolution hit Great Britain in the 1700s. The Industrial Revolution revolutionized work in the modern world, and helped create the modern factory environment. Machines mechanized the manufacture of fabric and fibers, and this ultimately led to more leisure time for the workers. They worked long hours in the factories, but they also had time off, and most employers gave at least some holidays off. Thus, people who had labored from dawn to dusk on farms in rural England, moved to the big city, got jobs in factories, and had leisure time away from their jobs. The Industrial Revolution helped create the notion of leisure time, and it helped create a different view of work and leisure.

The 20th Century

If the Industrial Revolution helped create the history of leisure and recreation, the 20th century helped cement it. Workers demanded shorter working hours, paid vacations and holidays, and weekends off, leading to even more leisure time for the world’s workforce. Today, work and leisure are still strictly separated, but leisure time and recreation are some of the most important aspect of modern life, showing how the history of leisure and recreation has altered throughout time, and become increasingly popular as people gain more freedom from work and toil.

Tribal Warfare

It’s interesting to note that the wide separation between work and leisure in our modern society is something that wasn’t necessary in early, tribal cultures. Early man (and woman), worked when it was necessary to find food or to create items they needed to live, but they did not work continually, they interspersed work with pleasure or leisure, something our society not longer enjoys. For example, in Native American societies, boys “played” at war and warfare, but this play taught them how to use a bow and arrow, useful for hunting as well as defending the tribe. Work became play, while today, the two terms are decidedly distinct.

Users and Uses of Financial Information

In every financial accounting textbook, the authors explain in detail about "Users and Uses of Financial Accounting." Information such as cash flow statements, income statements, and balance sheets are important documents that are kept to ensure that the company is recording everything correctly. The users of this accounting information are divided into two categories, internal and external users.

The internal users of accounting information are the managers who organize, operate and plan daily business routine. They are directly affiliated with the company and use administrative accounting, which includes in-depth reports used to determine financial strengths and weaknesses. For example, internal users would include management, finance, marketing, and human resources. An example of a human resource manager would be that he or she has to ensure the rights of their employees by using wage information along with other data. Important questions arise with internal users. A question for a marketing manager would include, "What price for an Apple I Pad will maximize the company's net income?"

External users are groups of individuals that are outside organizations, and they use accounting to make financial decisions. An example of an external user would include a creditor, who uses accounting to evaluate the risks of granting credit. Taxing authorities, investors, and customers are also external users. External users would receive limited financial information from a company such as financial statements. These statements are the backbone of financial accounting and they give the external users enough information to inform them of the company's economic position. Assets, liabilities, revenues, and expenses are of great importance to users of accounting information. For business purposes, it is customary to arrange this information in the format of four different financial statements; Balance sheet, income statement, retained earnings statement, and statement of cash flows.

The purpose of the income statement is to report the success or failure of the company's operations for a period of time. The income statement lists the company's revenues followed by it expenses. A key point to recall when preparing an income statement is that amounts received from issuing stock are not revenues, and amounts paid out as dividends are not expenses. Therefore they are not reported on the income statement. Retained earnings statement shows the amounts and causes of changes in retained earnings during the period. The time period is equivalent to the time covered on the income statement. Financial statement users can evaluate dividend payment practices by monitoring the retained earnings statement. Some investors seek companies that have a history of paying high dividends, while others seek companies that reinvest earnings to increase the company's growth.

The balance sheet is based on this equation: Assets = Liabilities + Stockholders Equity. This equation is referred to as the basis accounting equation. The balance sheet reports the company's assets, liabilities and owners equity. It is a financial window to the company at a specific point in time. Claims are divided into two categories: claims of creditors, which are called liabilities and claims of owners, which are called stockholders equity. On the balance sheet it lists the company's financial position as of a specific date in this order: assets first, then liabilities and stockholder's equity. A note to self about stockholders equity is that it is composed of common stock and retained earnings. Finally there is the statement on cash flows. The purpose of the statement of cash flows is to provide financial information about the cash receipts and cash payments of a business for a specific period of time. Users are interested in the statement of cash flows because they want to get a better understanding of what is happening to a company's most important resource. The statements of cash flows answer these following questions: 1) Where did cash come from during the period? 2) How was the cash used during the period? 3) What was the change in the cash balance during the period? The statement of cash flows also organizes and reports the cash generated used in the following activities: financing, investing, and operating. All businesses are involved with these three types of activities.

Financing activities is described as taking money to make money. The two sources of outside funds for corporations are borrowing money and selling shares of stock in exchange for cash. Investing activities involve the purchase of the resources company's need in order to operate such as sale of long-term investments, property, plant, and equipment. Finally there is operating activities. Once a business has the assets it needs to get started it can begin its operations. Operating activities convert the items reported on the income statement to cash.

In conclusion, the users of financial statements are people who use financial documents for a large variety of business purposes and their ability to make decisions using these statements helps them to succeed in the business world. Students have a chance to succeed in business if they have the knowledge of professionals who use financial statement analysis techniques and tools used on a day-to-day basis.

Lesson One – Investment Definition and Explanation

Investment is one of the fundamental concepts in finance. No financial discussion, website or blog is complete without clearing and explaning investment. I intend to write about investment in detail with reference to households and individuals, as a tutorial, starting from defining and explaining investment as a phenomenon and then slowly incorporating complex topics in further posts.

Definition of Investment

"Investment is the concept of putting 'surplus' money to things such as stocks, bonds, real estate, starting a new venture, buying a capital good etc. with a hope / forecast to have capital gains or continuous streams of positive net income from This employment of money. "

With reference to individuals, it is generally recommended to use surplus money for investments, as there is a very thin line between investing and speculating, so investment decisions should be made very wisely and with proper research and analysis. Investment always comes with a risk of losing the invested amount, and this loss would not be in the control of the investor then, it is always advisable to measure and research all risks involved.

Investment is a parallel concept to savings, where savings is done with an intent to cope with increasing inflation, Investment on the other hand is done with and intention to earn revenue streams or have capital gains from money invested, and it also generates employment and increases The production level of a country. Individuals save or invest their surplus money based on how much risk they are willing to take. More risk taking individuals prefer investing over savings.

How to Make Firefox Safe

Is Firefox Safe?

Firefox is considered to be the safest of all the major browsers. One of the main reasons Firefox has remained safe is its reliably short market history. Internet Explorer was one of the first browsers to enter the market. It was also the first choice of hackers. Identity thieves, spammers and hackers have all sharpened their skills with Internet Explorer and have now turned their attention to Firefox. This has forced Mozilla to constantly plug security holes in their browser. In addition, Firefox has increased it's ability to save your personal web history. If the browser is hacked, all this data becomes available to identity thieves. This article will show you how to protect your data and make Firefox safe.

Top 3 Ways To Make Firefox Safe

1. Plug Holes with Security Add-Ons.

What's the first step to make Firefox safe? The answer is add-ons. Mozilla.org has tons of free add-ons to make Firefox safe, fast and more appealing. By simply downloading small additional features and taking the proper precautions, you can easily make Firefox safe. However, leaving Firefox unmodified does not make it any safer than Internet Explorer which is notorious for security holes. Modifying Firefox with specific add-ons can provide you with an excellent security barrier.

The trouble is most websites are using Java Script to display banners, videos and other "click-able" elements. Net security advisers recommend that you avoid clicking on anything on questionable sites. However, this is a difficult task when you are quickly browsing through numerous pages. Clicking on the wrong link can cause a scripting attack, browsers hijacks, and malware to be added to your computer. Most script blocking add-ons have been proven effective, such as PC World's World Class Award winner "NoScript"; This tool helps to make Firefox safe by allowing Java Script and other executable content to run only from trusted domains of your choice. If you want to make Firefox safe you should have some form of script blocking.

Not all add-ons are made equal. Some Firefox's add-ons can make you more vulnerable to attack from malicious software. Hackers are able to implant Java script code into your browsers via the add-ons security holes. This allows spyware to record your personal info and passwords. These add-ons have become favorite tools for hackers:

Google Toolbar, Yahoo Toolbar, Del.icio.us Extension, Facebook Toolbar, AOL Toolbar, Ask.com Toolbar, and Netcraft Anti-Phishing Toolbar.

2. Keep Your Private Data Safe

The second step to make Firefox safe is private data security. One of the major areas of concern for Firefox safe usage is the amount of internet history that Firefox records. All web browsers can record your Internet history, search history, and passwords. However Firefox 3 has added features that allow it to remember all your password. This password manager benefits anyone with multiple complicated passwords. However, its better to not store these in your browser. If you insist on storing your passwords in Firefox, you should apply the master password feature that protects your saved passwords. Here is how:

1. Click "Tools"
2. Scroll down and choose "Options"
3. Choose the Privacy heading
4. Select "Saved Passwords"
5. Set "Master Password"

A Master Password will not prevent others from reading locally stored e-mails, viewing your browsing history, or from accessing sites the browser is already logged in to. You will need to shut down the browser and clear your temporary internet files to remove this data:

1. Quit, Firefox and any other web browser
2. Click Start, click "Control Panel", then then double-click "Internet Options".
3. On the General tab, click "Delete Files" under Temporary Internet Files.
4. In the Delete Files dialog box, click to select the "Delete all offline content" check box, and then click OK.
5. Click "OK".

Remember that Firefox does a traditional delete. So, this does not permanently erase the data from your hard drive. Only a secure delete can award you the ability to erase data from the drive permanently. For more on secure delete visit this Secure Delete Tutorial page

3. Listen to the Warnings

You can make Firefox safe by customizing your security settings to warn you of any suspected problems. By using this option, Firefox will warn you if a site has had a history of malicious attacks. This is a great preemptive measure that can save you from malware attacks and make Firefox safe. Here is how:

1. Click "Tools"
2. Scroll down and choose "Options"
3. Choose the Security tab
4. Click the check box for: "Warm me when a sites try to install add-ons", "Tell me if the site I'm visiting is a suspected attack site" and "Tell me if the site I'm visiting is A suspected forgery site.